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肯定与观望:评国务院废除拘留遣送的决定【首发】
中国人权



Cautious Welcome: HRIC Response to PRC State Council Decision to Abolish C & R System

“中国人权”组织对这部新法表示欢迎,并认为新法的推出是迈向废除收容遣送中心及其暴行的重要一步。国际人权团体需要继续监督势态的发展,以保证新法既符合中国国内立法程序的要求,同时又尊重国际人权标准和原则。
Human Rights in China welcomes the new regulations on Custody and Repatriation Centers. HRIC regards it as an important step torward ending the pervasive abuses perpetrated in C&R centers. International human rights community needs to continue monitoring these efforts to ensure compliance with both domestic Chinese law and with international standards and guidelines.





2003年6月22日,国务院颁布了一部新的条例-《城市生活无著的流浪乞讨人员救助管理办法》,这部于本月1日生效的法令将代替1982年制定的《城市流浪乞讨人员收容遣送办法》。如果这部新法得以落实,就意味著废除中国的现行收容遣送制度。“中国人权”组织对这部新法表示欢迎,并认为新法的推出是迈向废除收容遣送中心及其暴行的重要一步。国际人权团体需要继续监督势态的发展,以保证新法既符合中国国内立法程序的要求,同时又尊重国际人权标准和原则。

对这部新法的初步浏览得到的印象是,中国政府已经认识到收容遣送制度中的严重缺陷,并在新法中提出了一些矫正措施。“中国人权”肯定中国政府的这 些改革步骤,但同时也告诫:正式推出的法规必须伴随政府认真的落实和继续监督,防范过去的弊病再次发生。“中国人权”长期以来曾多次报道并谴责这一全国普 遍存在的严重违反国际人权标准的制度。

在过去二十多年里,1982年的《城市流浪乞讨人员收容遣送办法》允许警察任意拘捕和监禁任何不具备“三证”(身份证、暂住证、工作许可证)的 人。在这一制度下,全国范围内共设立了800多所收容遣送站。在诸多收容遣送站里,经常有数百万人在污秽、有辱人格、极不安全的条件下被无限期地关押。恶 劣的条件时常造成被关押人员的死亡。此外,收容遣送制度还以向被收容人员收取名目繁多的罚款和房费路费等方式,为警察和其它政府官员提供了敲诈勒索和“经 济创收”的途径。

在收容遣送站被拘捕关押的人员当中,绝大部分是到城市寻找工作的乡下民工,但收容遣送制度同时也被用来任意监禁和迫害持不同政见人士和那些为解决腐败或冤屈问题上访请愿的人。

实际上,根据国务院1982年通过的行政命令设立的收容遣送站本身就没有经过合法的立法程序,因而按照中国法律也是非法的;只有经由全国人民代表大会表决通过的法律才能合法限制公民的行动自由。

“中国人权”注意到新法作出了如下重要变化:

  • 废除1982年法令的规定,废止收容遣送制度并以救济制度取而代之。原来的拘留所将被救助站所代替,救助工作集中帮助那些没有经济能力自养的人,以及为贫困流动人口安排住处和工作。
  • 新法令不再强调遣送。
  • 新法令不再将重点集中在“三无人员”身上。以收容遣送“三无人员”为主的旧法令造成了对缺乏居住许可人员的敲诈勒索和其它形式的迫害。
  • 新法令责成民政部负责救助站的监督和管理,没有提到公安部参与救助站的工作。
    接受救助是自愿选择,受救助人员可以根据自己的意愿自由离开救助站。
  • 新法令禁止多种“中国人权”以前报道过的弊病和暴行。
这些弊病和暴行包括:

  • 强迫被收容人员为收容站或为第三方从事生产劳动(第10条);
  • 将妇女和男性强迫关押于一起(第8条);
  • 利用由被收容人员组成的“管理”小组,对其它被收容人员进行打骂虐待(第14条);
  • 借口拘禁被收容人员(第14条);
  • 没收被收容人员的财物,包括个人证件或申诉材料(第14条)。
“中国人权”出于建设性的态度,为了进一步深化尊重人权标准的法制改革,以及保证新法生效后能够实现它所提出的福利和救助目标(而不是演化成为另一座任意拘捕和羁押百姓的监狱〕,建议中国政府采纳以下附加措施:

(一)应该开放公开的渠道允许社会民间团体及个人对救助站是否遵守新法进行公民监督;
(二〕国家应该就新法令向各地主管救助站的政府部门发出指导方针,以避免地方官员制定他们自己的法规(第16条);
(三)新法的实施应该包括保证公民申诉的权利,一旦出现违章的情况,特别是那些涉及非自愿接受救助或受到管理人员虐待的情况,受害人应该有包括向法院申诉的各种权利。

“中国人权”还强烈要求中国政府利用这一时机,废除所有城乡歧视政策的制度根源:户籍制。

中国政府以前处理收容遣送系统内滥权施虐的办法之所以无效,是因为这一系统不受约束。事实上,民工的处境和待遇并非掌握在中央政府手中,而是在地 方政府的控制之下。根据中国农村目前拥有1亿7千万剩余劳动力的数码,官方预计,从现在起到2010年之间,每年将有1300万新的流动人口会在诸如上 海、广州、深圳和北京等主要大城市安顿下来。虽然民工在中国的经济发展中扮演了一个至关重要的角色,由于他们受到农村户口制的管辖,他们继续受到二等公民 的待遇。可以预料,主要省市自治区政府官员将会继续把民工当成包袱。比如,北京市政府的官员就清楚地表明,随著2008年奥运会的到来,他们不会放松对流 入北京的民工的控制。

除非中央政府在新法令实施的同时,在自由迁移权利问题上也相应采纳新的政策,并在农村人口经济上处于不利地位的问题上相应采取新的解决办法,否则,意欲解决救助城市里流浪贫困人口问题的新法规究竟在多大程度上能够产生预期效果还有待观察。

(该声明英文原文如下:〕


HRIC Welcomes Abolition of the Custody & Repatriation System


On June 22 the PRC government introduced new regulations that on August 1 will replace the 1982 vagrancy law and effectively abolish the Custody and Repatriation (C&R) system. Human Rights in China (HRIC) welcomes the new regulations, which it regards as an important step forward in abolishing the pervasive abuses perpetrated in C&R centers reported on and long denounced by HRIC. The international human rights community needs to continue monitoring these efforts to ensure compliance with both domestic Chinese law and with international standards and guidelines.

An initial examination of the new regulations indicates that the Chinese government has recognized the serious flaws in the C&R system and has adopted measures aimed at correcting them. HRIC welcomes these reforms, and at the same time cautions that the introduction of formal legislative measures must be accompanied by serious government implementation and oversight follow-up to prevent any recurrence of past abuses.

For more than twenty years, the 1982 regulation on "Custody and Repatriation of Homeless Beggars" allowed Public Security police to arbitrarily arrest and incarcerate any person lacking an identification card, temporary residence card or work permit. It led to the establishment of more than 800 C&R camps across China, in which millions of people were held for indefinite periods of time in filthy, degrading, and unsafe conditions that sometimes result in death. In addition, C&R provided an avenue for extortion and rent-seeking by the police and other officials in the form of myriad fines and fees for housing and transporting detainees.

Most of those arrested under C&R were rural migrants seeking work in urban areas, but the system was also used to arbitrarily imprison and harass political dissidents and people petitioning the central authorities over cases of corruption or injustice.

C&R was, in fact, illegal, as it was established by a regulation passed by the State Council, and only laws passed by the National People's Congress can restrict personal freedom of movement.

The significant changes brought about by the new regulations are as follows:
1) They repeal the 1982 regulations, abolish the C&R system and replace it with a relief system, with relief centers (instead of Custody centers) and relief missions that focus on providing relief for people who have no means of support, and making arrangements for indigent people to find shelter and work.
2) The new regulations no longer emphasize repatriation.
3) The new regulations no longer focus on “three withouts” personnel (sanwu renyuan), which under the old regulations allowed extortion and other abuses against people lacking residency permits.
4) The Ministry of Civil Affairs is in charge of the management and supervision of the Relief Centers, and there is no mention of participation by the Ministry of Public Security.
5) It is a voluntary measure, and people are free to leave the Relief centers of their own volition.
6) The regulations forbid many of the practices and abuses previously described by HRIC:

● Using detainees for internal or hired-out production work (Art. 10)
● Putting women in the same quarters as men (Art. 8)
● Using trustee detainees to “manage,” beat or abuse other detainees (Art. 14)
● Using pretexts to keep people in custody (Art. 14)
● Confiscating goods and possessions, including personal documents or letters of appeal (Art. 14)
HRIC Recommendations

In a constructive spirit HRIC recommends the following additional measures for deepening needed reforms and to ensure that the system as implemented carries out its stated goals of welfare and relief rather than regressing into just another means of arbitrary arrest and detention:

1) Social organizations and individuals should have open access to the relief centers to monitor whether they are complying with the rules;
2) The central government should issue guidelines on rules for the Relief Centers in order to prevent officials at the local level from making up their own rules (Art. 16)
3) Implementation of the new regulations should include full rights of appeal, including to a court, in case of regulatory infractions, especially those involving voluntary access to the system and possible abuses by staff.

HRIC also urges the Chinese government to take this opportunity to eliminate the entire household registration (hukou) system, which remains a vehicle for all manner of discriminatory policies against rural residents.

The Chinese government's previous measures to address abuses in the C&R system were limited by their non-binding nature and the fact that migration is no longer controlled by the central government, but rather is in the hands of local municipalities. With an acknowledged surplus of 170 million laborers in China’s rural areas, officials anticipate that between now and 2010, 13 million new migrants will settle in major cities such as Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Beijing every year.

Although migrant workers fill a crucial role in China’s economic development, they remain second-class citizens by virtue of their rural household registration, and officials of major municipalities can be expected to continue to regard them as a logistical headache. Beijing officials, for instance, have made it clear that there will be no loosening of control on the migrant influx with the approach of the 2008 Olympics.

It remains to be seen how well the new regulations will be able to address the needs of indigent urban residents unless the central government accompanies them with new directives on freedom of movement, and with new measures to address the economic disadvantages suffered by residents of rural areas.

(For more information about this statement, please contact the New York Office of Human Rights in China: (212)239-4495)


相关文章:



Cautious Welcome: HRIC Response to PRC State Council Decision to Abolish C & R System

“中国人权”组织对这部新法表示欢迎,并认为新法的推出是迈向废除收容遣送中心及其暴行的重要一步。国际人权团体需要继续监督势态的发展,以保证新法既符合中国国内立法程序的要求,同时又尊重国际人权标准和原则。
Human Rights in China welcomes the new regulations on Custody and Repatriation Centers. HRIC regards it as an important step torward ending the pervasive abuses perpetrated in C&R centers. International human rights community needs to continue monitoring these efforts to ensure compliance with both domestic Chinese law and with international standards and guidelines.





2003年6月22日,国务院颁布了一部新的条例-《城市生活无著的流浪乞讨人员救助管理办法》,这部于本月1日生效的法令将代替1982年制定的《城市流浪乞讨人员收容遣送办法》。如果这部新法得以落实,就意味著废除中国的现行收容遣送制度。“中国人权”组织对这部新法表示欢迎,并认为新法的推出是迈向废除收容遣送中心及其暴行的重要一步。国际人权团体需要继续监督势态的发展,以保证新法既符合中国国内立法程序的要求,同时又尊重国际人权标准和原则。

对这部新法的初步浏览得到的印象是,中国政府已经认识到收容遣送制度中的严重缺陷,并在新法中提出了一些矫正措施。“中国人权”肯定中国政府的这 些改革步骤,但同时也告诫:正式推出的法规必须伴随政府认真的落实和继续监督,防范过去的弊病再次发生。“中国人权”长期以来曾多次报道并谴责这一全国普 遍存在的严重违反国际人权标准的制度。

在过去二十多年里,1982年的《城市流浪乞讨人员收容遣送办法》允许警察任意拘捕和监禁任何不具备“三证”(身份证、暂住证、工作许可证)的 人。在这一制度下,全国范围内共设立了800多所收容遣送站。在诸多收容遣送站里,经常有数百万人在污秽、有辱人格、极不安全的条件下被无限期地关押。恶 劣的条件时常造成被关押人员的死亡。此外,收容遣送制度还以向被收容人员收取名目繁多的罚款和房费路费等方式,为警察和其它政府官员提供了敲诈勒索和“经 济创收”的途径。

在收容遣送站被拘捕关押的人员当中,绝大部分是到城市寻找工作的乡下民工,但收容遣送制度同时也被用来任意监禁和迫害持不同政见人士和那些为解决腐败或冤屈问题上访请愿的人。

实际上,根据国务院1982年通过的行政命令设立的收容遣送站本身就没有经过合法的立法程序,因而按照中国法律也是非法的;只有经由全国人民代表大会表决通过的法律才能合法限制公民的行动自由。

“中国人权”注意到新法作出了如下重要变化:

  • 废除1982年法令的规定,废止收容遣送制度并以救济制度取而代之。原来的拘留所将被救助站所代替,救助工作集中帮助那些没有经济能力自养的人,以及为贫困流动人口安排住处和工作。
  • 新法令不再强调遣送。
  • 新法令不再将重点集中在“三无人员”身上。以收容遣送“三无人员”为主的旧法令造成了对缺乏居住许可人员的敲诈勒索和其它形式的迫害。
  • 新法令责成民政部负责救助站的监督和管理,没有提到公安部参与救助站的工作。
    接受救助是自愿选择,受救助人员可以根据自己的意愿自由离开救助站。
  • 新法令禁止多种“中国人权”以前报道过的弊病和暴行。
这些弊病和暴行包括:

  • 强迫被收容人员为收容站或为第三方从事生产劳动(第10条);
  • 将妇女和男性强迫关押于一起(第8条);
  • 利用由被收容人员组成的“管理”小组,对其它被收容人员进行打骂虐待(第14条);
  • 借口拘禁被收容人员(第14条);
  • 没收被收容人员的财物,包括个人证件或申诉材料(第14条)。
“中国人权”出于建设性的态度,为了进一步深化尊重人权标准的法制改革,以及保证新法生效后能够实现它所提出的福利和救助目标(而不是演化成为另一座任意拘捕和羁押百姓的监狱〕,建议中国政府采纳以下附加措施:

(一)应该开放公开的渠道允许社会民间团体及个人对救助站是否遵守新法进行公民监督;
(二〕国家应该就新法令向各地主管救助站的政府部门发出指导方针,以避免地方官员制定他们自己的法规(第16条);
(三)新法的实施应该包括保证公民申诉的权利,一旦出现违章的情况,特别是那些涉及非自愿接受救助或受到管理人员虐待的情况,受害人应该有包括向法院申诉的各种权利。

“中国人权”还强烈要求中国政府利用这一时机,废除所有城乡歧视政策的制度根源:户籍制。

中国政府以前处理收容遣送系统内滥权施虐的办法之所以无效,是因为这一系统不受约束。事实上,民工的处境和待遇并非掌握在中央政府手中,而是在地 方政府的控制之下。根据中国农村目前拥有1亿7千万剩余劳动力的数码,官方预计,从现在起到2010年之间,每年将有1300万新的流动人口会在诸如上 海、广州、深圳和北京等主要大城市安顿下来。虽然民工在中国的经济发展中扮演了一个至关重要的角色,由于他们受到农村户口制的管辖,他们继续受到二等公民 的待遇。可以预料,主要省市自治区政府官员将会继续把民工当成包袱。比如,北京市政府的官员就清楚地表明,随著2008年奥运会的到来,他们不会放松对流 入北京的民工的控制。

除非中央政府在新法令实施的同时,在自由迁移权利问题上也相应采纳新的政策,并在农村人口经济上处于不利地位的问题上相应采取新的解决办法,否则,意欲解决救助城市里流浪贫困人口问题的新法规究竟在多大程度上能够产生预期效果还有待观察。

(该声明英文原文如下:〕


HRIC Welcomes Abolition of the Custody & Repatriation System


On June 22 the PRC government introduced new regulations that on August 1 will replace the 1982 vagrancy law and effectively abolish the Custody and Repatriation (C&R) system. Human Rights in China (HRIC) welcomes the new regulations, which it regards as an important step forward in abolishing the pervasive abuses perpetrated in C&R centers reported on and long denounced by HRIC. The international human rights community needs to continue monitoring these efforts to ensure compliance with both domestic Chinese law and with international standards and guidelines.

An initial examination of the new regulations indicates that the Chinese government has recognized the serious flaws in the C&R system and has adopted measures aimed at correcting them. HRIC welcomes these reforms, and at the same time cautions that the introduction of formal legislative measures must be accompanied by serious government implementation and oversight follow-up to prevent any recurrence of past abuses.

For more than twenty years, the 1982 regulation on "Custody and Repatriation of Homeless Beggars" allowed Public Security police to arbitrarily arrest and incarcerate any person lacking an identification card, temporary residence card or work permit. It led to the establishment of more than 800 C&R camps across China, in which millions of people were held for indefinite periods of time in filthy, degrading, and unsafe conditions that sometimes result in death. In addition, C&R provided an avenue for extortion and rent-seeking by the police and other officials in the form of myriad fines and fees for housing and transporting detainees.

Most of those arrested under C&R were rural migrants seeking work in urban areas, but the system was also used to arbitrarily imprison and harass political dissidents and people petitioning the central authorities over cases of corruption or injustice.

C&R was, in fact, illegal, as it was established by a regulation passed by the State Council, and only laws passed by the National People's Congress can restrict personal freedom of movement.

The significant changes brought about by the new regulations are as follows:
1) They repeal the 1982 regulations, abolish the C&R system and replace it with a relief system, with relief centers (instead of Custody centers) and relief missions that focus on providing relief for people who have no means of support, and making arrangements for indigent people to find shelter and work.
2) The new regulations no longer emphasize repatriation.
3) The new regulations no longer focus on “three withouts” personnel (sanwu renyuan), which under the old regulations allowed extortion and other abuses against people lacking residency permits.
4) The Ministry of Civil Affairs is in charge of the management and supervision of the Relief Centers, and there is no mention of participation by the Ministry of Public Security.
5) It is a voluntary measure, and people are free to leave the Relief centers of their own volition.
6) The regulations forbid many of the practices and abuses previously described by HRIC:

● Using detainees for internal or hired-out production work (Art. 10)
● Putting women in the same quarters as men (Art. 8)
● Using trustee detainees to “manage,” beat or abuse other detainees (Art. 14)
● Using pretexts to keep people in custody (Art. 14)
● Confiscating goods and possessions, including personal documents or letters of appeal (Art. 14)
HRIC Recommendations

In a constructive spirit HRIC recommends the following additional measures for deepening needed reforms and to ensure that the system as implemented carries out its stated goals of welfare and relief rather than regressing into just another means of arbitrary arrest and detention:

1) Social organizations and individuals should have open access to the relief centers to monitor whether they are complying with the rules;
2) The central government should issue guidelines on rules for the Relief Centers in order to prevent officials at the local level from making up their own rules (Art. 16)
3) Implementation of the new regulations should include full rights of appeal, including to a court, in case of regulatory infractions, especially those involving voluntary access to the system and possible abuses by staff.

HRIC also urges the Chinese government to take this opportunity to eliminate the entire household registration (hukou) system, which remains a vehicle for all manner of discriminatory policies against rural residents.

The Chinese government's previous measures to address abuses in the C&R system were limited by their non-binding nature and the fact that migration is no longer controlled by the central government, but rather is in the hands of local municipalities. With an acknowledged surplus of 170 million laborers in China’s rural areas, officials anticipate that between now and 2010, 13 million new migrants will settle in major cities such as Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Beijing every year.

Although migrant workers fill a crucial role in China’s economic development, they remain second-class citizens by virtue of their rural household registration, and officials of major municipalities can be expected to continue to regard them as a logistical headache. Beijing officials, for instance, have made it clear that there will be no loosening of control on the migrant influx with the approach of the 2008 Olympics.

It remains to be seen how well the new regulations will be able to address the needs of indigent urban residents unless the central government accompanies them with new directives on freedom of movement, and with new measures to address the economic disadvantages suffered by residents of rural areas.

(For more information about this statement, please contact the New York Office of Human Rights in China: (212)239-4495)


相关文章:



Cautious Welcome: HRIC Response to PRC State Council Decision to Abolish C & R System

“中国人权”组织对这部新法表示欢迎,并认为新法的推出是迈向废除收容遣送中心及其暴行的重要一步。国际人权团体需要继续监督势态的发展,以保证新法既符合中国国内立法程序的要求,同时又尊重国际人权标准和原则。
Human Rights in China welcomes the new regulations on Custody and Repatriation Centers. HRIC regards it as an important step torward ending the pervasive abuses perpetrated in C&R centers. International human rights community needs to continue monitoring these efforts to ensure compliance with both domestic Chinese law and with international standards and guidelines.





2003年6月22日,国务院颁布了一部新的条例-《城市生活无著的流浪乞讨人员救助管理办法》,这部于本月1日生效的法令将代替1982年制定的《城市流浪乞讨人员收容遣送办法》。如果这部新法得以落实,就意味著废除中国的现行收容遣送制度。“中国人权”组织对这部新法表示欢迎,并认为新法的推出是迈向废除收容遣送中心及其暴行的重要一步。国际人权团体需要继续监督势态的发展,以保证新法既符合中国国内立法程序的要求,同时又尊重国际人权标准和原则。

对这部新法的初步浏览得到的印象是,中国政府已经认识到收容遣送制度中的严重缺陷,并在新法中提出了一些矫正措施。“中国人权”肯定中国政府的这 些改革步骤,但同时也告诫:正式推出的法规必须伴随政府认真的落实和继续监督,防范过去的弊病再次发生。“中国人权”长期以来曾多次报道并谴责这一全国普 遍存在的严重违反国际人权标准的制度。

在过去二十多年里,1982年的《城市流浪乞讨人员收容遣送办法》允许警察任意拘捕和监禁任何不具备“三证”(身份证、暂住证、工作许可证)的 人。在这一制度下,全国范围内共设立了800多所收容遣送站。在诸多收容遣送站里,经常有数百万人在污秽、有辱人格、极不安全的条件下被无限期地关押。恶 劣的条件时常造成被关押人员的死亡。此外,收容遣送制度还以向被收容人员收取名目繁多的罚款和房费路费等方式,为警察和其它政府官员提供了敲诈勒索和“经 济创收”的途径。

在收容遣送站被拘捕关押的人员当中,绝大部分是到城市寻找工作的乡下民工,但收容遣送制度同时也被用来任意监禁和迫害持不同政见人士和那些为解决腐败或冤屈问题上访请愿的人。

实际上,根据国务院1982年通过的行政命令设立的收容遣送站本身就没有经过合法的立法程序,因而按照中国法律也是非法的;只有经由全国人民代表大会表决通过的法律才能合法限制公民的行动自由。

“中国人权”注意到新法作出了如下重要变化:

  • 废除1982年法令的规定,废止收容遣送制度并以救济制度取而代之。原来的拘留所将被救助站所代替,救助工作集中帮助那些没有经济能力自养的人,以及为贫困流动人口安排住处和工作。
  • 新法令不再强调遣送。
  • 新法令不再将重点集中在“三无人员”身上。以收容遣送“三无人员”为主的旧法令造成了对缺乏居住许可人员的敲诈勒索和其它形式的迫害。
  • 新法令责成民政部负责救助站的监督和管理,没有提到公安部参与救助站的工作。
    接受救助是自愿选择,受救助人员可以根据自己的意愿自由离开救助站。
  • 新法令禁止多种“中国人权”以前报道过的弊病和暴行。
这些弊病和暴行包括:

  • 强迫被收容人员为收容站或为第三方从事生产劳动(第10条);
  • 将妇女和男性强迫关押于一起(第8条);
  • 利用由被收容人员组成的“管理”小组,对其它被收容人员进行打骂虐待(第14条);
  • 借口拘禁被收容人员(第14条);
  • 没收被收容人员的财物,包括个人证件或申诉材料(第14条)。
“中国人权”出于建设性的态度,为了进一步深化尊重人权标准的法制改革,以及保证新法生效后能够实现它所提出的福利和救助目标(而不是演化成为另一座任意拘捕和羁押百姓的监狱〕,建议中国政府采纳以下附加措施:

(一)应该开放公开的渠道允许社会民间团体及个人对救助站是否遵守新法进行公民监督;
(二〕国家应该就新法令向各地主管救助站的政府部门发出指导方针,以避免地方官员制定他们自己的法规(第16条);
(三)新法的实施应该包括保证公民申诉的权利,一旦出现违章的情况,特别是那些涉及非自愿接受救助或受到管理人员虐待的情况,受害人应该有包括向法院申诉的各种权利。

“中国人权”还强烈要求中国政府利用这一时机,废除所有城乡歧视政策的制度根源:户籍制。

中国政府以前处理收容遣送系统内滥权施虐的办法之所以无效,是因为这一系统不受约束。事实上,民工的处境和待遇并非掌握在中央政府手中,而是在地 方政府的控制之下。根据中国农村目前拥有1亿7千万剩余劳动力的数码,官方预计,从现在起到2010年之间,每年将有1300万新的流动人口会在诸如上 海、广州、深圳和北京等主要大城市安顿下来。虽然民工在中国的经济发展中扮演了一个至关重要的角色,由于他们受到农村户口制的管辖,他们继续受到二等公民 的待遇。可以预料,主要省市自治区政府官员将会继续把民工当成包袱。比如,北京市政府的官员就清楚地表明,随著2008年奥运会的到来,他们不会放松对流 入北京的民工的控制。

除非中央政府在新法令实施的同时,在自由迁移权利问题上也相应采纳新的政策,并在农村人口经济上处于不利地位的问题上相应采取新的解决办法,否则,意欲解决救助城市里流浪贫困人口问题的新法规究竟在多大程度上能够产生预期效果还有待观察。

(该声明英文原文如下:〕


HRIC Welcomes Abolition of the Custody & Repatriation System


On June 22 the PRC government introduced new regulations that on August 1 will replace the 1982 vagrancy law and effectively abolish the Custody and Repatriation (C&R) system. Human Rights in China (HRIC) welcomes the new regulations, which it regards as an important step forward in abolishing the pervasive abuses perpetrated in C&R centers reported on and long denounced by HRIC. The international human rights community needs to continue monitoring these efforts to ensure compliance with both domestic Chinese law and with international standards and guidelines.

An initial examination of the new regulations indicates that the Chinese government has recognized the serious flaws in the C&R system and has adopted measures aimed at correcting them. HRIC welcomes these reforms, and at the same time cautions that the introduction of formal legislative measures must be accompanied by serious government implementation and oversight follow-up to prevent any recurrence of past abuses.

For more than twenty years, the 1982 regulation on "Custody and Repatriation of Homeless Beggars" allowed Public Security police to arbitrarily arrest and incarcerate any person lacking an identification card, temporary residence card or work permit. It led to the establishment of more than 800 C&R camps across China, in which millions of people were held for indefinite periods of time in filthy, degrading, and unsafe conditions that sometimes result in death. In addition, C&R provided an avenue for extortion and rent-seeking by the police and other officials in the form of myriad fines and fees for housing and transporting detainees.

Most of those arrested under C&R were rural migrants seeking work in urban areas, but the system was also used to arbitrarily imprison and harass political dissidents and people petitioning the central authorities over cases of corruption or injustice.

C&R was, in fact, illegal, as it was established by a regulation passed by the State Council, and only laws passed by the National People's Congress can restrict personal freedom of movement.

The significant changes brought about by the new regulations are as follows:
1) They repeal the 1982 regulations, abolish the C&R system and replace it with a relief system, with relief centers (instead of Custody centers) and relief missions that focus on providing relief for people who have no means of support, and making arrangements for indigent people to find shelter and work.
2) The new regulations no longer emphasize repatriation.
3) The new regulations no longer focus on “three withouts” personnel (sanwu renyuan), which under the old regulations allowed extortion and other abuses against people lacking residency permits.
4) The Ministry of Civil Affairs is in charge of the management and supervision of the Relief Centers, and there is no mention of participation by the Ministry of Public Security.
5) It is a voluntary measure, and people are free to leave the Relief centers of their own volition.
6) The regulations forbid many of the practices and abuses previously described by HRIC:

● Using detainees for internal or hired-out production work (Art. 10)
● Putting women in the same quarters as men (Art. 8)
● Using trustee detainees to “manage,” beat or abuse other detainees (Art. 14)
● Using pretexts to keep people in custody (Art. 14)
● Confiscating goods and possessions, including personal documents or letters of appeal (Art. 14)
HRIC Recommendations

In a constructive spirit HRIC recommends the following additional measures for deepening needed reforms and to ensure that the system as implemented carries out its stated goals of welfare and relief rather than regressing into just another means of arbitrary arrest and detention:

1) Social organizations and individuals should have open access to the relief centers to monitor whether they are complying with the rules;
2) The central government should issue guidelines on rules for the Relief Centers in order to prevent officials at the local level from making up their own rules (Art. 16)
3) Implementation of the new regulations should include full rights of appeal, including to a court, in case of regulatory infractions, especially those involving voluntary access to the system and possible abuses by staff.

HRIC also urges the Chinese government to take this opportunity to eliminate the entire household registration (hukou) system, which remains a vehicle for all manner of discriminatory policies against rural residents.

The Chinese government's previous measures to address abuses in the C&R system were limited by their non-binding nature and the fact that migration is no longer controlled by the central government, but rather is in the hands of local municipalities. With an acknowledged surplus of 170 million laborers in China’s rural areas, officials anticipate that between now and 2010, 13 million new migrants will settle in major cities such as Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Beijing every year.

Although migrant workers fill a crucial role in China’s economic development, they remain second-class citizens by virtue of their rural household registration, and officials of major municipalities can be expected to continue to regard them as a logistical headache. Beijing officials, for instance, have made it clear that there will be no loosening of control on the migrant influx with the approach of the 2008 Olympics.

It remains to be seen how well the new regulations will be able to address the needs of indigent urban residents unless the central government accompanies them with new directives on freedom of movement, and with new measures to address the economic disadvantages suffered by residents of rural areas.

(For more information about this statement, please contact the New York Office of Human Rights in China: (212)239-4495)


相关文章:



Cautious Welcome: HRIC Response to PRC State Council Decision to Abolish C & R System

“中国人权”组织对这部新法表示欢迎,并认为新法的推出是迈向废除收容遣送中心及其暴行的重要一步。国际人权团体需要继续监督势态的发展,以保证新法既符合中国国内立法程序的要求,同时又尊重国际人权标准和原则。
Human Rights in China welcomes the new regulations on Custody and Repatriation Centers. HRIC regards it as an important step torward ending the pervasive abuses perpetrated in C&R centers. International human rights community needs to continue monitoring these efforts to ensure compliance with both domestic Chinese law and with international standards and guidelines.





2003年6月22日,国务院颁布了一部新的条例-《城市生活无著的流浪乞讨人员救助管理办法》,这部于本月1日生效的法令将代替1982年制定的《城市流浪乞讨人员收容遣送办法》。如果这部新法得以落实,就意味著废除中国的现行收容遣送制度。“中国人权”组织对这部新法表示欢迎,并认为新法的推出是迈向废除收容遣送中心及其暴行的重要一步。国际人权团体需要继续监督势态的发展,以保证新法既符合中国国内立法程序的要求,同时又尊重国际人权标准和原则。

对这部新法的初步浏览得到的印象是,中国政府已经认识到收容遣送制度中的严重缺陷,并在新法中提出了一些矫正措施。“中国人权”肯定中国政府的这 些改革步骤,但同时也告诫:正式推出的法规必须伴随政府认真的落实和继续监督,防范过去的弊病再次发生。“中国人权”长期以来曾多次报道并谴责这一全国普 遍存在的严重违反国际人权标准的制度。

在过去二十多年里,1982年的《城市流浪乞讨人员收容遣送办法》允许警察任意拘捕和监禁任何不具备“三证”(身份证、暂住证、工作许可证)的 人。在这一制度下,全国范围内共设立了800多所收容遣送站。在诸多收容遣送站里,经常有数百万人在污秽、有辱人格、极不安全的条件下被无限期地关押。恶 劣的条件时常造成被关押人员的死亡。此外,收容遣送制度还以向被收容人员收取名目繁多的罚款和房费路费等方式,为警察和其它政府官员提供了敲诈勒索和“经 济创收”的途径。

在收容遣送站被拘捕关押的人员当中,绝大部分是到城市寻找工作的乡下民工,但收容遣送制度同时也被用来任意监禁和迫害持不同政见人士和那些为解决腐败或冤屈问题上访请愿的人。

实际上,根据国务院1982年通过的行政命令设立的收容遣送站本身就没有经过合法的立法程序,因而按照中国法律也是非法的;只有经由全国人民代表大会表决通过的法律才能合法限制公民的行动自由。

“中国人权”注意到新法作出了如下重要变化:

  • 废除1982年法令的规定,废止收容遣送制度并以救济制度取而代之。原来的拘留所将被救助站所代替,救助工作集中帮助那些没有经济能力自养的人,以及为贫困流动人口安排住处和工作。
  • 新法令不再强调遣送。
  • 新法令不再将重点集中在“三无人员”身上。以收容遣送“三无人员”为主的旧法令造成了对缺乏居住许可人员的敲诈勒索和其它形式的迫害。
  • 新法令责成民政部负责救助站的监督和管理,没有提到公安部参与救助站的工作。
    接受救助是自愿选择,受救助人员可以根据自己的意愿自由离开救助站。
  • 新法令禁止多种“中国人权”以前报道过的弊病和暴行。
这些弊病和暴行包括:

  • 强迫被收容人员为收容站或为第三方从事生产劳动(第10条);
  • 将妇女和男性强迫关押于一起(第8条);
  • 利用由被收容人员组成的“管理”小组,对其它被收容人员进行打骂虐待(第14条);
  • 借口拘禁被收容人员(第14条);
  • 没收被收容人员的财物,包括个人证件或申诉材料(第14条)。
“中国人权”出于建设性的态度,为了进一步深化尊重人权标准的法制改革,以及保证新法生效后能够实现它所提出的福利和救助目标(而不是演化成为另一座任意拘捕和羁押百姓的监狱〕,建议中国政府采纳以下附加措施:

(一)应该开放公开的渠道允许社会民间团体及个人对救助站是否遵守新法进行公民监督;
(二〕国家应该就新法令向各地主管救助站的政府部门发出指导方针,以避免地方官员制定他们自己的法规(第16条);
(三)新法的实施应该包括保证公民申诉的权利,一旦出现违章的情况,特别是那些涉及非自愿接受救助或受到管理人员虐待的情况,受害人应该有包括向法院申诉的各种权利。

“中国人权”还强烈要求中国政府利用这一时机,废除所有城乡歧视政策的制度根源:户籍制。

中国政府以前处理收容遣送系统内滥权施虐的办法之所以无效,是因为这一系统不受约束。事实上,民工的处境和待遇并非掌握在中央政府手中,而是在地 方政府的控制之下。根据中国农村目前拥有1亿7千万剩余劳动力的数码,官方预计,从现在起到2010年之间,每年将有1300万新的流动人口会在诸如上 海、广州、深圳和北京等主要大城市安顿下来。虽然民工在中国的经济发展中扮演了一个至关重要的角色,由于他们受到农村户口制的管辖,他们继续受到二等公民 的待遇。可以预料,主要省市自治区政府官员将会继续把民工当成包袱。比如,北京市政府的官员就清楚地表明,随著2008年奥运会的到来,他们不会放松对流 入北京的民工的控制。

除非中央政府在新法令实施的同时,在自由迁移权利问题上也相应采纳新的政策,并在农村人口经济上处于不利地位的问题上相应采取新的解决办法,否则,意欲解决救助城市里流浪贫困人口问题的新法规究竟在多大程度上能够产生预期效果还有待观察。

(该声明英文原文如下:〕


HRIC Welcomes Abolition of the Custody & Repatriation System


On June 22 the PRC government introduced new regulations that on August 1 will replace the 1982 vagrancy law and effectively abolish the Custody and Repatriation (C&R) system. Human Rights in China (HRIC) welcomes the new regulations, which it regards as an important step forward in abolishing the pervasive abuses perpetrated in C&R centers reported on and long denounced by HRIC. The international human rights community needs to continue monitoring these efforts to ensure compliance with both domestic Chinese law and with international standards and guidelines.

An initial examination of the new regulations indicates that the Chinese government has recognized the serious flaws in the C&R system and has adopted measures aimed at correcting them. HRIC welcomes these reforms, and at the same time cautions that the introduction of formal legislative measures must be accompanied by serious government implementation and oversight follow-up to prevent any recurrence of past abuses.

For more than twenty years, the 1982 regulation on "Custody and Repatriation of Homeless Beggars" allowed Public Security police to arbitrarily arrest and incarcerate any person lacking an identification card, temporary residence card or work permit. It led to the establishment of more than 800 C&R camps across China, in which millions of people were held for indefinite periods of time in filthy, degrading, and unsafe conditions that sometimes result in death. In addition, C&R provided an avenue for extortion and rent-seeking by the police and other officials in the form of myriad fines and fees for housing and transporting detainees.

Most of those arrested under C&R were rural migrants seeking work in urban areas, but the system was also used to arbitrarily imprison and harass political dissidents and people petitioning the central authorities over cases of corruption or injustice.

C&R was, in fact, illegal, as it was established by a regulation passed by the State Council, and only laws passed by the National People's Congress can restrict personal freedom of movement.

The significant changes brought about by the new regulations are as follows:
1) They repeal the 1982 regulations, abolish the C&R system and replace it with a relief system, with relief centers (instead of Custody centers) and relief missions that focus on providing relief for people who have no means of support, and making arrangements for indigent people to find shelter and work.
2) The new regulations no longer emphasize repatriation.
3) The new regulations no longer focus on “three withouts” personnel (sanwu renyuan), which under the old regulations allowed extortion and other abuses against people lacking residency permits.
4) The Ministry of Civil Affairs is in charge of the management and supervision of the Relief Centers, and there is no mention of participation by the Ministry of Public Security.
5) It is a voluntary measure, and people are free to leave the Relief centers of their own volition.
6) The regulations forbid many of the practices and abuses previously described by HRIC:

● Using detainees for internal or hired-out production work (Art. 10)
● Putting women in the same quarters as men (Art. 8)
● Using trustee detainees to “manage,” beat or abuse other detainees (Art. 14)
● Using pretexts to keep people in custody (Art. 14)
● Confiscating goods and possessions, including personal documents or letters of appeal (Art. 14)
HRIC Recommendations

In a constructive spirit HRIC recommends the following additional measures for deepening needed reforms and to ensure that the system as implemented carries out its stated goals of welfare and relief rather than regressing into just another means of arbitrary arrest and detention:

1) Social organizations and individuals should have open access to the relief centers to monitor whether they are complying with the rules;
2) The central government should issue guidelines on rules for the Relief Centers in order to prevent officials at the local level from making up their own rules (Art. 16)
3) Implementation of the new regulations should include full rights of appeal, including to a court, in case of regulatory infractions, especially those involving voluntary access to the system and possible abuses by staff.

HRIC also urges the Chinese government to take this opportunity to eliminate the entire household registration (hukou) system, which remains a vehicle for all manner of discriminatory policies against rural residents.

The Chinese government's previous measures to address abuses in the C&R system were limited by their non-binding nature and the fact that migration is no longer controlled by the central government, but rather is in the hands of local municipalities. With an acknowledged surplus of 170 million laborers in China’s rural areas, officials anticipate that between now and 2010, 13 million new migrants will settle in major cities such as Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Beijing every year.

Although migrant workers fill a crucial role in China’s economic development, they remain second-class citizens by virtue of their rural household registration, and officials of major municipalities can be expected to continue to regard them as a logistical headache. Beijing officials, for instance, have made it clear that there will be no loosening of control on the migrant influx with the approach of the 2008 Olympics.

It remains to be seen how well the new regulations will be able to address the needs of indigent urban residents unless the central government accompanies them with new directives on freedom of movement, and with new measures to address the economic disadvantages suffered by residents of rural areas.

(For more information about this statement, please contact the New York Office of Human Rights in China: (212)239-4495)


相关文章:



Cautious Welcome: HRIC Response to PRC State Council Decision to Abolish C & R System

“中国人权”组织对这部新法表示欢迎,并认为新法的推出是迈向废除收容遣送中心及其暴行的重要一步。国际人权团体需要继续监督势态的发展,以保证新法既符合中国国内立法程序的要求,同时又尊重国际人权标准和原则。
Human Rights in China welcomes the new regulations on Custody and Repatriation Centers. HRIC regards it as an important step torward ending the pervasive abuses perpetrated in C&R centers. International human rights community needs to continue monitoring these efforts to ensure compliance with both domestic Chinese law and with international standards and guidelines.





2003年6月22日,国务院颁布了一部新的条例-《城市生活无著的流浪乞讨人员救助管理办法》,这部于本月1日生效的法令将代替1982年制定的《城市流浪乞讨人员收容遣送办法》。如果这部新法得以落实,就意味著废除中国的现行收容遣送制度。“中国人权”组织对这部新法表示欢迎,并认为新法的推出是迈向废除收容遣送中心及其暴行的重要一步。国际人权团体需要继续监督势态的发展,以保证新法既符合中国国内立法程序的要求,同时又尊重国际人权标准和原则。

对这部新法的初步浏览得到的印象是,中国政府已经认识到收容遣送制度中的严重缺陷,并在新法中提出了一些矫正措施。“中国人权”肯定中国政府的这 些改革步骤,但同时也告诫:正式推出的法规必须伴随政府认真的落实和继续监督,防范过去的弊病再次发生。“中国人权”长期以来曾多次报道并谴责这一全国普 遍存在的严重违反国际人权标准的制度。

在过去二十多年里,1982年的《城市流浪乞讨人员收容遣送办法》允许警察任意拘捕和监禁任何不具备“三证”(身份证、暂住证、工作许可证)的 人。在这一制度下,全国范围内共设立了800多所收容遣送站。在诸多收容遣送站里,经常有数百万人在污秽、有辱人格、极不安全的条件下被无限期地关押。恶 劣的条件时常造成被关押人员的死亡。此外,收容遣送制度还以向被收容人员收取名目繁多的罚款和房费路费等方式,为警察和其它政府官员提供了敲诈勒索和“经 济创收”的途径。

在收容遣送站被拘捕关押的人员当中,绝大部分是到城市寻找工作的乡下民工,但收容遣送制度同时也被用来任意监禁和迫害持不同政见人士和那些为解决腐败或冤屈问题上访请愿的人。

实际上,根据国务院1982年通过的行政命令设立的收容遣送站本身就没有经过合法的立法程序,因而按照中国法律也是非法的;只有经由全国人民代表大会表决通过的法律才能合法限制公民的行动自由。

“中国人权”注意到新法作出了如下重要变化:

  • 废除1982年法令的规定,废止收容遣送制度并以救济制度取而代之。原来的拘留所将被救助站所代替,救助工作集中帮助那些没有经济能力自养的人,以及为贫困流动人口安排住处和工作。
  • 新法令不再强调遣送。
  • 新法令不再将重点集中在“三无人员”身上。以收容遣送“三无人员”为主的旧法令造成了对缺乏居住许可人员的敲诈勒索和其它形式的迫害。
  • 新法令责成民政部负责救助站的监督和管理,没有提到公安部参与救助站的工作。
    接受救助是自愿选择,受救助人员可以根据自己的意愿自由离开救助站。
  • 新法令禁止多种“中国人权”以前报道过的弊病和暴行。
这些弊病和暴行包括:

  • 强迫被收容人员为收容站或为第三方从事生产劳动(第10条);
  • 将妇女和男性强迫关押于一起(第8条);
  • 利用由被收容人员组成的“管理”小组,对其它被收容人员进行打骂虐待(第14条);
  • 借口拘禁被收容人员(第14条);
  • 没收被收容人员的财物,包括个人证件或申诉材料(第14条)。
“中国人权”出于建设性的态度,为了进一步深化尊重人权标准的法制改革,以及保证新法生效后能够实现它所提出的福利和救助目标(而不是演化成为另一座任意拘捕和羁押百姓的监狱〕,建议中国政府采纳以下附加措施:

(一)应该开放公开的渠道允许社会民间团体及个人对救助站是否遵守新法进行公民监督;
(二〕国家应该就新法令向各地主管救助站的政府部门发出指导方针,以避免地方官员制定他们自己的法规(第16条);
(三)新法的实施应该包括保证公民申诉的权利,一旦出现违章的情况,特别是那些涉及非自愿接受救助或受到管理人员虐待的情况,受害人应该有包括向法院申诉的各种权利。

“中国人权”还强烈要求中国政府利用这一时机,废除所有城乡歧视政策的制度根源:户籍制。

中国政府以前处理收容遣送系统内滥权施虐的办法之所以无效,是因为这一系统不受约束。事实上,民工的处境和待遇并非掌握在中央政府手中,而是在地 方政府的控制之下。根据中国农村目前拥有1亿7千万剩余劳动力的数码,官方预计,从现在起到2010年之间,每年将有1300万新的流动人口会在诸如上 海、广州、深圳和北京等主要大城市安顿下来。虽然民工在中国的经济发展中扮演了一个至关重要的角色,由于他们受到农村户口制的管辖,他们继续受到二等公民 的待遇。可以预料,主要省市自治区政府官员将会继续把民工当成包袱。比如,北京市政府的官员就清楚地表明,随著2008年奥运会的到来,他们不会放松对流 入北京的民工的控制。

除非中央政府在新法令实施的同时,在自由迁移权利问题上也相应采纳新的政策,并在农村人口经济上处于不利地位的问题上相应采取新的解决办法,否则,意欲解决救助城市里流浪贫困人口问题的新法规究竟在多大程度上能够产生预期效果还有待观察。

(该声明英文原文如下:〕


HRIC Welcomes Abolition of the Custody & Repatriation System


On June 22 the PRC government introduced new regulations that on August 1 will replace the 1982 vagrancy law and effectively abolish the Custody and Repatriation (C&R) system. Human Rights in China (HRIC) welcomes the new regulations, which it regards as an important step forward in abolishing the pervasive abuses perpetrated in C&R centers reported on and long denounced by HRIC. The international human rights community needs to continue monitoring these efforts to ensure compliance with both domestic Chinese law and with international standards and guidelines.

An initial examination of the new regulations indicates that the Chinese government has recognized the serious flaws in the C&R system and has adopted measures aimed at correcting them. HRIC welcomes these reforms, and at the same time cautions that the introduction of formal legislative measures must be accompanied by serious government implementation and oversight follow-up to prevent any recurrence of past abuses.

For more than twenty years, the 1982 regulation on "Custody and Repatriation of Homeless Beggars" allowed Public Security police to arbitrarily arrest and incarcerate any person lacking an identification card, temporary residence card or work permit. It led to the establishment of more than 800 C&R camps across China, in which millions of people were held for indefinite periods of time in filthy, degrading, and unsafe conditions that sometimes result in death. In addition, C&R provided an avenue for extortion and rent-seeking by the police and other officials in the form of myriad fines and fees for housing and transporting detainees.

Most of those arrested under C&R were rural migrants seeking work in urban areas, but the system was also used to arbitrarily imprison and harass political dissidents and people petitioning the central authorities over cases of corruption or injustice.

C&R was, in fact, illegal, as it was established by a regulation passed by the State Council, and only laws passed by the National People's Congress can restrict personal freedom of movement.

The significant changes brought about by the new regulations are as follows:
1) They repeal the 1982 regulations, abolish the C&R system and replace it with a relief system, with relief centers (instead of Custody centers) and relief missions that focus on providing relief for people who have no means of support, and making arrangements for indigent people to find shelter and work.
2) The new regulations no longer emphasize repatriation.
3) The new regulations no longer focus on “three withouts” personnel (sanwu renyuan), which under the old regulations allowed extortion and other abuses against people lacking residency permits.
4) The Ministry of Civil Affairs is in charge of the management and supervision of the Relief Centers, and there is no mention of participation by the Ministry of Public Security.
5) It is a voluntary measure, and people are free to leave the Relief centers of their own volition.
6) The regulations forbid many of the practices and abuses previously described by HRIC:

● Using detainees for internal or hired-out production work (Art. 10)
● Putting women in the same quarters as men (Art. 8)
● Using trustee detainees to “manage,” beat or abuse other detainees (Art. 14)
● Using pretexts to keep people in custody (Art. 14)
● Confiscating goods and possessions, including personal documents or letters of appeal (Art. 14)
HRIC Recommendations

In a constructive spirit HRIC recommends the following additional measures for deepening needed reforms and to ensure that the system as implemented carries out its stated goals of welfare and relief rather than regressing into just another means of arbitrary arrest and detention:

1) Social organizations and individuals should have open access to the relief centers to monitor whether they are complying with the rules;
2) The central government should issue guidelines on rules for the Relief Centers in order to prevent officials at the local level from making up their own rules (Art. 16)
3) Implementation of the new regulations should include full rights of appeal, including to a court, in case of regulatory infractions, especially those involving voluntary access to the system and possible abuses by staff.

HRIC also urges the Chinese government to take this opportunity to eliminate the entire household registration (hukou) system, which remains a vehicle for all manner of discriminatory policies against rural residents.

The Chinese government's previous measures to address abuses in the C&R system were limited by their non-binding nature and the fact that migration is no longer controlled by the central government, but rather is in the hands of local municipalities. With an acknowledged surplus of 170 million laborers in China’s rural areas, officials anticipate that between now and 2010, 13 million new migrants will settle in major cities such as Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Beijing every year.

Although migrant workers fill a crucial role in China’s economic development, they remain second-class citizens by virtue of their rural household registration, and officials of major municipalities can be expected to continue to regard them as a logistical headache. Beijing officials, for instance, have made it clear that there will be no loosening of control on the migrant influx with the approach of the 2008 Olympics.

It remains to be seen how well the new regulations will be able to address the needs of indigent urban residents unless the central government accompanies them with new directives on freedom of movement, and with new measures to address the economic disadvantages suffered by residents of rural areas.

(For more information about this statement, please contact the New York Office of Human Rights in China: (212)239-4495)


相关文章:



Cautious Welcome: HRIC Response to PRC State Council Decision to Abolish C & R System

“中国人权”组织对这部新法表示欢迎,并认为新法的推出是迈向废除收容遣送中心及其暴行的重要一步。国际人权团体需要继续监督势态的发展,以保证新法既符合中国国内立法程序的要求,同时又尊重国际人权标准和原则。
Human Rights in China welcomes the new regulations on Custody and Repatriation Centers. HRIC regards it as an important step torward ending the pervasive abuses perpetrated in C&R centers. International human rights community needs to continue monitoring these efforts to ensure compliance with both domestic Chinese law and with international standards and guidelines.





2003年6月22日,国务院颁布了一部新的条例-《城市生活无著的流浪乞讨人员救助管理办法》,这部于本月1日生效的法令将代替1982年制定的《城市流浪乞讨人员收容遣送办法》。如果这部新法得以落实,就意味著废除中国的现行收容遣送制度。“中国人权”组织对这部新法表示欢迎,并认为新法的推出是迈向废除收容遣送中心及其暴行的重要一步。国际人权团体需要继续监督势态的发展,以保证新法既符合中国国内立法程序的要求,同时又尊重国际人权标准和原则。

对这部新法的初步浏览得到的印象是,中国政府已经认识到收容遣送制度中的严重缺陷,并在新法中提出了一些矫正措施。“中国人权”肯定中国政府的这 些改革步骤,但同时也告诫:正式推出的法规必须伴随政府认真的落实和继续监督,防范过去的弊病再次发生。“中国人权”长期以来曾多次报道并谴责这一全国普 遍存在的严重违反国际人权标准的制度。

在过去二十多年里,1982年的《城市流浪乞讨人员收容遣送办法》允许警察任意拘捕和监禁任何不具备“三证”(身份证、暂住证、工作许可证)的 人。在这一制度下,全国范围内共设立了800多所收容遣送站。在诸多收容遣送站里,经常有数百万人在污秽、有辱人格、极不安全的条件下被无限期地关押。恶 劣的条件时常造成被关押人员的死亡。此外,收容遣送制度还以向被收容人员收取名目繁多的罚款和房费路费等方式,为警察和其它政府官员提供了敲诈勒索和“经 济创收”的途径。

在收容遣送站被拘捕关押的人员当中,绝大部分是到城市寻找工作的乡下民工,但收容遣送制度同时也被用来任意监禁和迫害持不同政见人士和那些为解决腐败或冤屈问题上访请愿的人。

实际上,根据国务院1982年通过的行政命令设立的收容遣送站本身就没有经过合法的立法程序,因而按照中国法律也是非法的;只有经由全国人民代表大会表决通过的法律才能合法限制公民的行动自由。

“中国人权”注意到新法作出了如下重要变化:

  • 废除1982年法令的规定,废止收容遣送制度并以救济制度取而代之。原来的拘留所将被救助站所代替,救助工作集中帮助那些没有经济能力自养的人,以及为贫困流动人口安排住处和工作。
  • 新法令不再强调遣送。
  • 新法令不再将重点集中在“三无人员”身上。以收容遣送“三无人员”为主的旧法令造成了对缺乏居住许可人员的敲诈勒索和其它形式的迫害。
  • 新法令责成民政部负责救助站的监督和管理,没有提到公安部参与救助站的工作。
    接受救助是自愿选择,受救助人员可以根据自己的意愿自由离开救助站。
  • 新法令禁止多种“中国人权”以前报道过的弊病和暴行。
这些弊病和暴行包括:

  • 强迫被收容人员为收容站或为第三方从事生产劳动(第10条);
  • 将妇女和男性强迫关押于一起(第8条);
  • 利用由被收容人员组成的“管理”小组,对其它被收容人员进行打骂虐待(第14条);
  • 借口拘禁被收容人员(第14条);
  • 没收被收容人员的财物,包括个人证件或申诉材料(第14条)。
“中国人权”出于建设性的态度,为了进一步深化尊重人权标准的法制改革,以及保证新法生效后能够实现它所提出的福利和救助目标(而不是演化成为另一座任意拘捕和羁押百姓的监狱〕,建议中国政府采纳以下附加措施:

(一)应该开放公开的渠道允许社会民间团体及个人对救助站是否遵守新法进行公民监督;
(二〕国家应该就新法令向各地主管救助站的政府部门发出指导方针,以避免地方官员制定他们自己的法规(第16条);
(三)新法的实施应该包括保证公民申诉的权利,一旦出现违章的情况,特别是那些涉及非自愿接受救助或受到管理人员虐待的情况,受害人应该有包括向法院申诉的各种权利。

“中国人权”还强烈要求中国政府利用这一时机,废除所有城乡歧视政策的制度根源:户籍制。

中国政府以前处理收容遣送系统内滥权施虐的办法之所以无效,是因为这一系统不受约束。事实上,民工的处境和待遇并非掌握在中央政府手中,而是在地 方政府的控制之下。根据中国农村目前拥有1亿7千万剩余劳动力的数码,官方预计,从现在起到2010年之间,每年将有1300万新的流动人口会在诸如上 海、广州、深圳和北京等主要大城市安顿下来。虽然民工在中国的经济发展中扮演了一个至关重要的角色,由于他们受到农村户口制的管辖,他们继续受到二等公民 的待遇。可以预料,主要省市自治区政府官员将会继续把民工当成包袱。比如,北京市政府的官员就清楚地表明,随著2008年奥运会的到来,他们不会放松对流 入北京的民工的控制。

除非中央政府在新法令实施的同时,在自由迁移权利问题上也相应采纳新的政策,并在农村人口经济上处于不利地位的问题上相应采取新的解决办法,否则,意欲解决救助城市里流浪贫困人口问题的新法规究竟在多大程度上能够产生预期效果还有待观察。

(该声明英文原文如下:〕


HRIC Welcomes Abolition of the Custody & Repatriation System


On June 22 the PRC government introduced new regulations that on August 1 will replace the 1982 vagrancy law and effectively abolish the Custody and Repatriation (C&R) system. Human Rights in China (HRIC) welcomes the new regulations, which it regards as an important step forward in abolishing the pervasive abuses perpetrated in C&R centers reported on and long denounced by HRIC. The international human rights community needs to continue monitoring these efforts to ensure compliance with both domestic Chinese law and with international standards and guidelines.

An initial examination of the new regulations indicates that the Chinese government has recognized the serious flaws in the C&R system and has adopted measures aimed at correcting them. HRIC welcomes these reforms, and at the same time cautions that the introduction of formal legislative measures must be accompanied by serious government implementation and oversight follow-up to prevent any recurrence of past abuses.

For more than twenty years, the 1982 regulation on "Custody and Repatriation of Homeless Beggars" allowed Public Security police to arbitrarily arrest and incarcerate any person lacking an identification card, temporary residence card or work permit. It led to the establishment of more than 800 C&R camps across China, in which millions of people were held for indefinite periods of time in filthy, degrading, and unsafe conditions that sometimes result in death. In addition, C&R provided an avenue for extortion and rent-seeking by the police and other officials in the form of myriad fines and fees for housing and transporting detainees.

Most of those arrested under C&R were rural migrants seeking work in urban areas, but the system was also used to arbitrarily imprison and harass political dissidents and people petitioning the central authorities over cases of corruption or injustice.

C&R was, in fact, illegal, as it was established by a regulation passed by the State Council, and only laws passed by the National People's Congress can restrict personal freedom of movement.

The significant changes brought about by the new regulations are as follows:
1) They repeal the 1982 regulations, abolish the C&R system and replace it with a relief system, with relief centers (instead of Custody centers) and relief missions that focus on providing relief for people who have no means of support, and making arrangements for indigent people to find shelter and work.
2) The new regulations no longer emphasize repatriation.
3) The new regulations no longer focus on “three withouts” personnel (sanwu renyuan), which under the old regulations allowed extortion and other abuses against people lacking residency permits.
4) The Ministry of Civil Affairs is in charge of the management and supervision of the Relief Centers, and there is no mention of participation by the Ministry of Public Security.
5) It is a voluntary measure, and people are free to leave the Relief centers of their own volition.
6) The regulations forbid many of the practices and abuses previously described by HRIC:

● Using detainees for internal or hired-out production work (Art. 10)
● Putting women in the same quarters as men (Art. 8)
● Using trustee detainees to “manage,” beat or abuse other detainees (Art. 14)
● Using pretexts to keep people in custody (Art. 14)
● Confiscating goods and possessions, including personal documents or letters of appeal (Art. 14)
HRIC Recommendations

In a constructive spirit HRIC recommends the following additional measures for deepening needed reforms and to ensure that the system as implemented carries out its stated goals of welfare and relief rather than regressing into just another means of arbitrary arrest and detention:

1) Social organizations and individuals should have open access to the relief centers to monitor whether they are complying with the rules;
2) The central government should issue guidelines on rules for the Relief Centers in order to prevent officials at the local level from making up their own rules (Art. 16)
3) Implementation of the new regulations should include full rights of appeal, including to a court, in case of regulatory infractions, especially those involving voluntary access to the system and possible abuses by staff.

HRIC also urges the Chinese government to take this opportunity to eliminate the entire household registration (hukou) system, which remains a vehicle for all manner of discriminatory policies against rural residents.

The Chinese government's previous measures to address abuses in the C&R system were limited by their non-binding nature and the fact that migration is no longer controlled by the central government, but rather is in the hands of local municipalities. With an acknowledged surplus of 170 million laborers in China’s rural areas, officials anticipate that between now and 2010, 13 million new migrants will settle in major cities such as Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Beijing every year.

Although migrant workers fill a crucial role in China’s economic development, they remain second-class citizens by virtue of their rural household registration, and officials of major municipalities can be expected to continue to regard them as a logistical headache. Beijing officials, for instance, have made it clear that there will be no loosening of control on the migrant influx with the approach of the 2008 Olympics.

It remains to be seen how well the new regulations will be able to address the needs of indigent urban residents unless the central government accompanies them with new directives on freedom of movement, and with new measures to address the economic disadvantages suffered by residents of rural areas.

(For more information about this statement, please contact the New York Office of Human Rights in China: (212)239-4495)


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